I use mostly plastic containers, some of which are 1-5 gal. sizes, others are 13" to 17" pots.
The advantage of container gardening is it's mobility, especially if you use casters. If pots are to be placed on cemented patio, they should have saucers to catch run-off that can stain the cemented surface.
Now for vegetable gardening.
There are warm season & cool season vegetables.
I grow vegetables such as beans, cabbage, watercress, eggplants, garlic, herbs,[sweet basil, chives, coriander, mint, oregano, parsley, rosemary, tarragon, etc], leek, lettuce, onion, oriental cabbage, peas, pepper
, radish, shallot, New Zealand spinach, Kabocha squash, tomato, tomatillo, strawberries; and a few flowering plants
The thing to remember is that, mosts plants
will grow in at least 6 inches of soil. Many herbs and few vegetables will do quite well on shalllow containers. Carrot, radish and other deep rooted vegetables will need more than 6 inches of soil, preferably twice the length of mature carrot or radish.
Here is a list of cool season & warm season vegetables:
Artichoke, asparagus, beets, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, collards, water cress, endive, garlic, kohlrabi, leeks, lettuce, mustard greens, onions, oriental greens, parsnip, peas, potato
, radish, rhubarb, roquette, rutabaga, salsify, shallots, spinach, swiss chard and turnip.
Amaranth, beans, chayote, chicory, collards, corn, cucumber, eggplants, most herbs, jerusalem artichoke, jicama, melon, okra, oriental melons, peanuts, peppers
, pumpkin, peas, spinach, squash, sunflower, sweet potatoes
, tomatillo, tomato and watermelon.
These are good for containers:
Amaranth, beans, beets, broccoli, some cabbage, carrots, collards, water cress, cucumber, eggplants, herbs, mustard greens, onions, oriental greens, peas, peppers
, radish, roquette, shallots, sorrell, spinach [New Zealand], swiss chard, and tomato.
These are prolific producers:
Beans, brussels sprouts, cucumber, herbs, jerusalem artichoke, mustard green, oriental greens, peas, radish, spinach, sprouts, some squash, sunflower, tomatoes.
These are fast maturing:
Amaranth, water cress, most herbs, lettuce, mustard greens, onions [green], radish, roquette, spinach, sprouts, turnips.
When planting, stagger them a week or two apart, so that you will have continued supply of vegetables.
Soil & Fertilizer:
I use store bought potting soil and fertilize the plants
according to individual plant
requirements. Last season I use both compost and fertizer. Do a pH test on the soil you are going to use. Most garden soil range from 4.5 [very acidic] to 9[very alkaline] before adding any fertilizer. Some plants
prefer either acidic or alkaline soil. And, follow label instructions when using/applying fertilizers.
requires a minimum of 6 hours of sunlight either under direct sunlight or bright sunlight in protected/shaded areas.
in containers are subjected to drying heat, hot temperature, and reflected heat and wind that dries the soil and therefore need more watering attention. Water early in the morning; and, depending on the outside tempeerature, you may need to water more than once a day.
Basil, Chives, Cilantro, Dill, Marjoram, Mint, Oregano, Parsley, Rosemary, Sage, Tarragon, Thyme.
Salad greens and flowers
Arugula, Curley Cress, Endive, Leaf lettuce, Mustard, Radicchio, Sorrel + Calendula, Johnny jump up, Nasturtium, Pansy, Violet.
This year, I also used two hard plastic wading pools and planted them with white potatoes
and cherry tomatoes.
Info from my collection of gardening books by various publishers, i.e. Sunset, Ortho, etc.